Review – Bellingrandt and Otto’s Magical Manuscripts in Early Modern Europe

In 1710, a huge collection of magical, cabalistic, and alchemical manuscripts, part of the collection of medical professional Samuel Schröer, came up for sale. In that climate of official censorship, pulling off such an exchange would seem remarkable – but the agent put out a small catalog, most likely circulated face to face, and a buyer was located for the bulk of the books.

This large collection, mostly intact, now rests at the Leipzig University Library – if you’d like to see it yourself, Mihai Vartejaru has provided a list of the digitized copies with convenient links. What the new book Magical Manuscripts in Early Modern Europe, by Daniel Bellingradt and Bernd-Christian Otto, provides is not the text of these works, but a history and description of the collection.  The work is released as part of the Palgrave Pivot series, dedicated to releasing shorter pieces of scholarship than what might usually appear in book format.

The main portion of the book provides a brief discussion of manuscripts of ritual magic, the details of the collection’s sale, and its significance within the book trade, the intellectual climate, and the legal system of the time.  All of this is interesting – save for the background on magical books which is available through other sources – but it is also very brief.  By my count, it covers about thirty-five pages, not including references – the length of a long-form journal article.  I hesitate to mention this, but given the book’s price, I think it deserves to be mentioned.

The real meat of the book, however, is in the first appendix: a detailed list of the 140 books in the collection, most of which still survive and are available. For each one in which the information is known, we are told the title(s), ascribed authors, size and pagination, languages, and contents.  The latter are quite diverse.  We have treatises on astronomy, Kabbala, and numerology, along with a few different versions of the Key of Solomon. We also have manuscripts attributed to Abramelin and Faust that are printed elsewhere, and a wide variety of works dedicated to all manner of talismans, consecrations, and other procedures.  Collections have been dedicated to love, hate, military matters, treasure hunting, invisibility, and other purposes.  A number of brief operations of note are also present. Two will conjure the infamous Baron, while another calls for bringing a pizza to the crossroads. No doubt everyone in the occult hipster community will be talking about the magical crossroads pizza in a few years…

Anyway, the authors give us seventy pages of this material, which will be the major draw of the book for most of you. The work is rounded out with a reprint of the original 1710 catalog and a brief index.

What would have really driven this book over the top would have been a discussion beyond the context of the collection, diving into its contents. What do the contents tell us about its owners? What were their areas of particular interest? Were they practitioners or collections? (At least one owner seems to have been using these works, a notice buried in the endnotes tells us.) Is it missing any notable period works? Given the sheer amount of material, any analysis would have to be lengthy and detailed, but with the length of the main text, I think there could certainly have been room.

In brief, the discussion of the collection’s milieu is interesting but brief, the modern catalog of the manuscripts is amazing and thought-provoking, and all of this deals with a collection of manuscripts of which we will be hearing a great deal in the future. No, I don’t know of anyone else working on them, but there definitely will be soon.  I should note that it contains no actual transcripts of particular rites, lest anyone seek them out.  Nonetheless, the book is a preview of the next stage in grimoire scholarship and publishing, and you should definitely get it if that interests you.

Published in: on October 8, 2017 at 12:24 pm  Leave a Comment  

The Price of Occult Books, Part 6 – Possible Solutions

So, having gone through the roles of publishing (1 and 2), libraries, collecting , and authors, when it comes to the price of occult books.  What are the solutions, then?

Let’s begin with the proposition that the availability of the content of occult books is something that is a common good.  This should be balanced against the desire of creators and publishers to make money off of their work, and to create beautiful and artistic objects as they see fit.  This is mitigated by the fact that, once a limited edition book goes out of print, neither authors nor publishers are likely to see meaningful returns upon them.

So, what can be done?  I’m going to suggest some options.  Perhaps some of them have been tried before, and others may only work in particular situations, but I think all of them deserve some thought. I’d like to give examples of publishers and authors who are already using some of these strategies.

  • Making less expensive editions available:  The premier publisher for this right now is Scarlet Imprint, which publishes its works in both premium editions and its Bibliothèque Rouge imprint of paperbacks.  We also have some items in the Penn State Magic in History series, which have cheap e-books available of their higher price print books. (If you’ve bought books from their series through Amazon, check the prices there; I bought the print edition of Forbidden Rites from them nineteen years ago, and I was able to pick up the e-book a few weeks ago for $2.) The releases could be simultaneous, or the cheaper edition might appear some months or years down the line.
  • Make the text freely available. I might include here how we published a transcription of Folger V.b.26 online.   Here’s another example. Owen Davies just co-authored a book, Executing Magic in the Modern Era, which deals with all manner of folklore and beliefs about the power of executioners and the trappings of executions.  It’s a bit pricey for the content, I have to admit – save that it’s a Creative Comments document.  Clicking on that link above will get you an authorized PDF.
  • Working with libraries:  Both the United States and the UK have depository programs, in which every copy of a book published in the country is to be sent to a library.  This is rarely enforced, but it provides an incentive for a publisher to make a copy available to someone able to travel there.

It might also be possible to make a donation of a book to an appropriate library.  I would suggest finding a library with appropriate collections and speaking with an appropriate person on the staff, so the library doesn’t accidentally put the work in the local book sale.

I acknowledge that any of these will nonetheless leave certain barriers in place, as the ability to travel, access the Internet, or obtain credit cards or other means of online purchase may limit those able to access them.  Nonetheless, it might be a good start.

Are these plausible?  Could we try other methods?  I’d be interested to hearing what you have to say.




Published in: on September 20, 2017 at 6:31 pm  Comments (1)  

The Price of Occult Books, Part 5 – The Author’s Perspective

Now that we’ve gone over occult publishing from the perspective of publishing (1 and 2), libraries, and collecting – what about the role of creators and editors?  Fortunately, I can give some perspective on this as well.

I write a lot of different pieces, although these days they all come back to the topic of ritual magic. (For anything who thinks there’s big money in the field, the Cthulhu Mythos Encyclopedia is still my best seller.)  That includes both academic works (journal articles, book chapters, and the like), and editions of texts geared toward a more popular audience, whether longer works with fewer illustrations (Book of Oberon, The Long-Lost Friend) or shorter ones which have the full text reproduced (Experimentum Potens Magna).

My writing and editing can take different tactics for different reasons.  Some projects are being part of the academic conversation, which are among the expectations of me in a college setting.  This means publishing in academic forums, which sometimes have a particular price tag attached due to the nature of that field.

We also have the shorter manuscripts that have elements that will be of interest to readers, whether graphics, handwriting, or other aspects thereof.  A facsimile edition of such a work is useful and notable – and comes with an appropriate price tag.

A longer edited work of a mainly textual nature, such as The Long-Lost Friend and Oberon, is the area in which it is possible to create affordable editions suitable for a larger audience.  (I acknowledge that “affordable” for a $60 retail book may be considered relative by some readers.)

This does lead to situations in which some of my creations are not available to many readers, and it’s one I’d like to address.  I’m going to start examining my options for making these more broadly available, without violating my relationships with the publishers, artists, and other individuals who made the original creations possible.  I can already tell it might be difficult, on top of everything else I’ve got going on, so please feel free to ask where I am on it.

Next time, I conclude with some thoughts on what authors like me and publishers can do to help to make their work more accessible.




Published in: on August 30, 2017 at 2:01 pm  Comments (1)  

Review – Kurlander’s Hitler’s Monsters

We’ve seen a great number of books written about the influence of the occult upon the Third Reich.  Of particular interest are such works as Goodwin-Clarke’s The Occult Roots of Nazism and Staudenmeier’s Between Occultism and Nazism, which deal with the roles Ariosophy and Anthroposophy, respectively, played in Nazi Germany.  The latest offering, Hitler’s Monsters: A Supernatural History of the Third Reich, is written by Eric Kurlander of Stetson University and published by Yale University Press.

The word “supernatural” is key to understanding Kurlander’s objective.  Althoughprevious authors have attempted to deal with different aspects of Nazi occultism, Kurlander seeks to survey the influence of the “supernatural” on the Third Reich, with that term remaining largely undefined save to map it in some respects to the German idea of “border science,” which in itself seems rather vague.  This allows him to cover racial pseudo-science, astrology, dowsing, folklore, mythology, runes, werewolves, vampires, the Grail, the Tibet Expedition, Wewelsburg Castle, World Ice Theory, anti-gravity, and all sorts of other topics about which you, having read this far, probably want to learn more.  On the other hand, the specificity of his definition makes his insistence that Nazi Germany was considerably different from other countries at the time, with regard to similar beliefs, difficult to prove.

Nonetheless, this book is a fascinating work.  Kurlander is rarely able to delve into any topic at length, but what he provides is a useful survey of the scholarship on many different matters coupled with illuminating archival research.  Previous works have often emphasized the eccentric and sometimes horrible intellects who proposed many of the unusual beliefs that became part of Weimar German culture.  Kurlander does acknowledge them, but he sets out to describe specifically what Hitler, Himmler, Hess, and other prominent members of the Nazi party believed and were willing to support with the Reich’s resources.  The goal here is to establish what was of import to the leadership and what has been romanticized, although the latter is usually dealt with by omission than discussion.

Considerable debate has surrounded the Nazi leadership’s interest in the occult.  Was it the heart of their dark designs? Or were German occultists victims of an ideology that eventually turned their countrymen against them, especially after Rudolf Hess fled for Great Britain?  This is not a simple answer, Kurlander tells us.  Some beliefs were largely outside the Nazis’ ingenuity to assimilate into their system; little is said of ritual magic in this book, for instance.  Nonetheless, proponents of many of these beliefs who followed party orthodoxy – or gained the sponsorship of high-ranking members – survived and even throve in Nazi Germany, even if some elements of the government were keen on silencing them.

I feel that this review has come across as more negative than I desired.  I had hoped for a more comprehensive perspective on these issues – but if nothing else, it has convinced me that a work would have to be colossal to accomplish that task.  Hitler’s Monsters is a necessity for anyone who wishes to know the role of the supernatural in the Third Reich, and who wishes to put aside much of the dross that has accumulated on that subject.



Published in: on August 6, 2017 at 7:08 pm  Leave a Comment  

Brief Notes

I’ve been spending a good amount of time researching Elizabethan and Jacobean England for the next book.  This means I’ve been finding other areas to keep my mind active.  Here’s a few:

  • One recent item on my reading list has been An Introduction to Yokai Culture.  It’s got some great chapters on kappa, tengu, and other phenomena and beings at the edge of Japanese culture.  It does focus on the folklore studies of these beings, so there’s a good deal of discussion of theory as put forth in books that likely will never be translated into English, but it’s quite fascinating.
  • I’ve appreciated the offerings in Clavis Journal Volume 4, particularly the article by Eytzinger, “Curse the Eyes of the Thief.” I don’t think anyone’s put it together, but the operations he’s describing are Scandanavian versions of the “Eye of Abraham” ritual for uncovering a thief that is mentioned elsewhere (sorry, no online PDF).
  • I’ve been enjoying reading some classic Runequest works, thanks to Chaosium. I’ve particularly enjoyed Pavis and Big Rubble, a campaign setting filled with history, weird cults, and danger.  I don’t know if I’d run the system – I enjoy old-school games, but it’s even more deadly than Cthulhu, with many more dismemberments.
  • And, just to make matters even more bizarre, I’ve also been listening to the Bulgarian History Podcast.  Treachery, religion, war, and Byzantine (in both senses of the word) intrigue, pulled from historical literature to which most people will never have access.  I recommend it highly.
Published in: on June 25, 2017 at 9:00 am  Leave a Comment  

Forthcoming – Touch Me Not!

Fulgur Books is taking pre-orders for Touch Me Not!, a book of ritual magic held at the Wellcome Institute with some stunning illustrations.  You can view the manuscript here in all its glory.

Touch Me Not! is an Austrian manuscript compendium of the black magical arts, completed c.1795. Unique and otherworldly, it evokes a realm of visceral dark magic. As the co-editor Hereward Tilton notes, the manuscript ‘appears at first sight to be a ‘grimoire’ or magician’s manual intended for noviciates of black magic. Psychedelic drug use, animal sacrifice, sigillary body art, masturbation fantasy and the necromantic manipulation of gallows-corpses count among the transgressive procedures it depicts…

Hidden for decades within the Wellcome Library collection, Touch Me Not is published here as a full colour facsimile for the first time. We have commissioned a translation of the German and Latin texts from Hereward Tilton and Merlin Cox, scholars who have explored the sources for the various elements and provided copious references. There is also an introduction from Hereward that lays out the context for this extraordinary survival.

Some of the promised material sounds intriguing, although I do wonder how much of the colorful language is reflected in the manuscript.  They offer a limited edition hardback and a paperback edition, which currently has a pre-order price.  The latter offsets the price of overseas shipping slightly – but that’s unavoidable these days, right?



Published in: on June 22, 2017 at 6:00 pm  Leave a Comment  

The Price of Occult Books, Part 4 – The Collector’s Perspective

In our past three segments, we’ve dealt with causes of high book prices, some examples of particularly high prices, and the impact of the library market.  At this point, I’d like to turn to the impact of these prices on collectors – including myself.  This part will be more free-form, as I’m still working through my thoughts on the matter.

I purchase a good number of books in this field, as anyone who reads this blog is aware.  These are from a wide variety of different publishers – small and large presses, popular and academic ones, creators of artisanal works and mass-market paperbacks, and even reproductions of manuscripts from various libraries. I also make good use of the libraries at my workplace and those in the area, as well as the growing collection of digitized works in Google Books, the Internet Archive, and Gallica.

The focus of my collection is primary source texts of ritual magic, in various formats, along with historical works putting them into their context in one way or another. The number of such texts have certainly increased in recent years.  Previously, I could expand my purchases into other areas, but I’ve cut down on these considerably – especially for roleplaying games. Yet even now, there are more great books to read, and as we discussed last time, many of them are not making it into libraries.

Further, this is a market in which you can often see unexpected and quick price increases.  It’s true that some of these are due to vendors and bots who inflate prices unduly, but there are often spectacular rises in the amounts for particular books once they go out of print.  Since many of these come from small presses with limited print runs, this means that it’s hard to delay purchases for later.

This is, of course, compounded by the issues regarding libraries that we already identified.  It is likely that any particular academic work will be picked up, perhaps after a few months, by some library in the country from which it might be obtained. The same cannot be said for many of the small – or even medium – press books. For example, The Book of Oberon has done well in terms of sales, but only seventeen WorldCat libraries in the US hold it. That often means that the only way to access a book is to purchase it.

The effect of all this has been to create a market in which books, expensive or not, must often be purchased quickly and through specialized channels if one wishes to obtain them. When there is not an opportunity to do so, the desired book might not be available anywhere in an affordable format.

A fair question is how much any of this literature is necessary for a particular reader.  Given the large amount of material that is available online, it is hard to say that there is a great “need” for materials on the topic in general.  Depending upon one’s particular area of research or spiritual practice, though, certain works may not be available.  I think it is fair to say that the advancement of knowledge makes it important that such works be available to people within reason.  I’m not sure what should be considered “reasonable,” and it’s likely readers will differ greatly on this front, but I think it’s a good principle.

Of course, I’m not just a purchaser of books.  I also write and edit them – and my next entry will deal with that.





Published in: on June 10, 2017 at 8:41 am  Comments (2)  

The Newberry Library’s Book of Magical Charms: A Transcription Opportunity

Could you decipher the text of an early modern magical manuscript?  You have your chance at the website of Chicago’s Newberry Library, which has posted a seventeenth-century work with various sorts of spells and remedies.  Each page has a window at the bottom where you can attempt a transcription or translation, as part of an effort at a crowdsourced translation.  I’m not sure what the result will be, but I’ve already contributed one page, and I hope to add more.

Published in: on May 26, 2017 at 2:03 pm  Comments (1)  

Review: Petit Albert, Ouroboros Press Edition

Ouroboros Press has released its latest work, an English language translation of the Petit Albert, the famous French grimoire and book of remedies.  As with many other Ouroboros releases, this has been put out as a small book, attractively bound in black.

As it happens, another English-language translation of this work appeared not so long ago, Hadean Press’s unfortunately-named The Spellbook of Marie Laveau, which I’ve already reviewed.  The same comments as I’ve given there may apply to the overall value of an English translation of the book.  Yet how do the two measure up?

The Ouroboros Press edition does not have much beyond a short introduction, and the Hadean Press edition does the same.  Neither work possesses an index or an extensive critical apparatus.  A question might be asked, then, as to the quality of the two.  I would not consider myself an expert at either French or translation, but I have made a few notes, based on some dictionary work, on some matters I find to be interesting.

Let’s take the formula for the Hand of Glory.   The 1752 French text from Google Books gives the ingredients to be placed with the hand as “du zimat, du salpêtre , du sel & du poivre long.”  The Ouroboros edition translates this as “vinegar, saltpeter, salt, and black pepper,” the Hadean as “some green vitriol, saltpeter, salt, and long pepper.” I can’t find “zimat,” but it does appear that “poivre long” is long pepper, which is different from black pepper.

What else? We have an experiment to make a “bâton” for travelers.  Hadean has “staff,” and Ouroboros has “stick.” (Both are technically correct, but I prefer the first.)  The elder wood for this must be picked “le lendemain de la Toussaints,” which Ouroboros renders as “the day after Halloween” and Hadean as “the day after All Saints’ Day,” which is  correct.  On the other hand, if you want the magic stones that help you to tame a horse, you’ll need to go to Mount “Sénis.” The Ouroboros edition turns this into “Cenis,” a mountain in France near the Italian border, while the Hadean transforms this into “Säntis,” a prominence in northeast Switzerland.

I’d be very interested to hear what people more proficient with French, especially those who have read more of the book than what I have examined, would have to say about these works.

Which one should you get?  It depends.  If price is a concern, the Hadean Press edition is half the price of the Ouroboros.  If you’d like a well-bound book, the Ouroboros edition is probably the best for your money.  Either one will provide an interesting collection of remedies and folk magic that should enrich anyone’s knowledge of folk magic.

Published in: on May 24, 2017 at 1:20 pm  Leave a Comment  

The Price of Occult Books, Part 3 – The Role of Libraries

In previous posts, we’ve talked about factors that drive up the price of occult books, and books that are high-priced despite this.  I only have part of the story here, and I’d encourage people to comment on what they know.

Are libraries the solution to these problems?

They would seem to be, at first.  You’ve got a large number of institutions which have entire budgets dedicated to acquiring material for its users, defined in terms of a particular community of scholars or practitioners, or the public at large.  They have immense databases that provide information from thousands (I’m being very conservative here) of different publishers.  What’s more, these libraries often lend their books and articles to other libraries, thereby maximizing the ability of even small town centers to access works from around the world. Wouldn’t this be a great boon for the occult community?

Libraries are a great boon, but this does not mean that they do not come with their problems.  One of these is the greatest explosion of information that the world has ever seen, most of which comes with a price tag that’s often substantial.  At the same time, library budgets have not increased.   This ProQuest whitepaper from last year shows that four-fifths of the academic library respondents have reduced their purchasing power for monographs, either due to budget reductions or because their flat budgets give them less purchasing power.  And the United States is much better off than the UK, where libraries are being closed and staff being slashed in favor of volunteers, as part of an austerity-based governance philosophy.  Thus, as the amount of information rises, the ability to process and provide that information to the public shrinks.

Most of the cost associated with this is driven by large publishers interested in short-term payoffs to shareholders rather than providing information to the public.  This has led to an emphasis on books priced at a point where libraries are the intended purchasers.  I don’t know the publishing end, but my uninformed guess is that publisher marketing is one part detailed analysis, trend-watching, and number-crunching, and one part pawing through goat entrails in the woods on a dark night.

Thus, you end up with a situation where publishers decide they’re going to sell to libraries, but libraries are buying less.  Thus, they need to drive up the prices to meet the new margins, which makes the books more expensive, while libraries are buying less… The net effect is to lower the number of books that can be purchased, at a time when more books than ever are appearing.  This situation is likely to become more messy as the years go by, and the end result may not be beneficial to scholarship.

What about interlibrary loan?  This does do a great deal to mitigate this situation, but it only helps so much. All of the lending libraries are under the same financial constraints as the others, which often means that books have to be borrowed from farther away, with increases in shipping and time.  Libraries are often unwilling to lend newly-released books they’ve purchased for their own patrons, and some charge fees or place other restrictions on the service.  Further, I’m just discussing U. S. libraries here – I get the impression that ILL services are fairly good in Europe, and I’m not sure about the rest of the world.

Having set the stage, let’s turn to books on the occult.  We face special challenges here. First, libraries typically seek purchases in particular fields that meet the needs of their patrons.  In academic libraries, these are largely based upon the traditional divisions of the disciplines.  Items that do not fit neatly within these divisions, such as esoteric books, may not be purchased simply because it doesn’t fit the model.

Also, occult books bring with them a set of preconceived notions about the topics within that affects their treatment.  I would love to believe that librarians would not exclude such books simply because of their subject matter – and I believe the vast majority would not do so – but some would.  On the other hand, we also have communities in which such books are looked upon with suspicion, and where patrons might be less likely to ask for them – or to steal them to avoid the judgment of anyone.  The theft of occult books from libraries would make for a fascinating study, but anecdotal evidence indicates it’s a real problem for many libraries. And even the impression that it’s a problem might cause librarians to divert their funds elsewhere.

Also, let’s not forget that many occult works these days are being released by small presses, outside the regular distribution chains.  If you were able to buy a book from Amazon, or a similar one from a small press that required a special invoice and that required you to check to make sure you’d received the item after payment, which one would you choose?  Most of us would choose the former – and that’s a risk we’d be taking with our own funds, let alone those of an employer.  Thus, a great number of the books released these days on occultism are not likely to be purchased by a library anywhere.

This brings us to purchasers and collectors, who will be the topic of my next post.


Published in: on April 28, 2017 at 6:29 pm  Comments (3)